Anisakiasis is caused by the accidental ingestion of larvae of the nematodes (roundworms)
Anisakis Simplex is a food-borne pathogens responsible for food allergy and for gastrointestinal anisakiasis. Its transmission is clearly related to traditions of eating raw or lightly cooked fish contaminated by third stage larvae. Its life cycle comprises: [Adult] >> fish stomach; [Eggs] >> feces; [L1/L2] >> Free swimmers (eaten by Crustaceans) [L3] >> fish, squids (infective to human).
After ingestion, the anisakid larvae penetrate the gastric and intestinal mucosa, causing the symptoms of anisakiasis: direct tissue damage following invasion of the gut wall, development of an eosinophilic granuloma, perforation of the gut and strong allergic reactions. This parasite is now included in the standard sets of allergens for the investigation of food allergy, anaphylaxis and even drug allergies. Until now, the only effective treatment for this is the endoscopic removal of live larvae and the best protection against it is to educate consumers about the dangers of eating raw fish and to recommend avoiding the consumption of raw or inadequately thermally treated marine fish or cephalopods.
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans represents an innovative tool to investigate the potential toxicity or functional effects of foodborne metabolites and emerging pathogens in the food industry. Toxic effects on different life cycle parameters, lifespan, thermal and oxidative stress resistance, and behaviorally respond to different food sources (avoidance of noxious substances and attraction to nutrients) can be assessed in this simple and whole organism model. One applications example can be found at: “Toxicological Evaluations on Ochratoxin a in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans” by Joonsu Jang, University of Georgia.